R22 vs. R410A – Making an Informed Decision

August 18, 2015

R22 vs R410A

In compliance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the United States has prohibited the transport and sale of R-22 charged air conditioning equipment since January 1, 2010. Most people know R22 by the brand name Freon, while air conditioning technicians refer to it as R22, and the U.S. government has classified it as HCFC-22, a controlled substance. Whatever you choose to call it, prior to 2010 R22 had been the go to refrigerant for cooling homes and businesses. Composed of hydrofluorcarbon (HCFC), R22 emits chlorine atoms when it escapes into the atmosphere. These atoms damage the ozone, which acts as a blanket to help screen out ultra-violet rays which have been linked to skin cancer, one of the fastest growing cancers in the United States.

Under the Montreal Protocol, the EPA has made an effort to push consumers to switch from R22 (Freon) based air conditioning systems to R410A (brand name Puron) based systems. When it escapes (for example, through a leak in an evaporator or condenser coil), R410A does far less harm to the environment than R22. Because the Montreal Protocol banned R22-charged condensers, it appeared, back in 2010, that if your R22 condenser failed you would have no choice other than to purchase R410A equipment. This not only meant that you would have to replace the failed condenser unit with an R410A model, but, if your evaporator worked with R22 only, you would then have to replace that as well. An air conditioning system (condenser, evaporator coil and refrigerant lines) can operate with only one refrigerant; R22 and R410A must never mix. (Fortunately, modern evaporator coils can be converted from R22 to R410A). Since the 2010 deadline, manufacturers and dealers have found a way around the R22-charged condenser ban. They may legally dry-ship and sell R22-compatible condensers. That is, the condensers they sell do not contain any R22 refrigerant. Hence, they don’t violate the law. Once the equipment has been installed, an EPA certified technician can charge it up with R22. This means that you do still have a choice between upgrading your cooling system to R410A or replacing failed equipment with a unit which uses R22.

Besides the fact that R410A is less damaging to the environment, there are other advantages to using R410A-based equipment. For one thing, it is slightly more efficient than R22 equipment. Also, R410A based compressors run cooler than R22 based compressors and, consequently, are less likely to overheat and burn out. Another benefit of R410A air conditioning systems is that they use new, synthetic lubricants which circulate more efficiently than the mineral oil used to lubricate R22 systems. This translates to less wear and tear on the unit’s moving parts.

This is not to say that R410A is perfect. For one thing it operates under much higher pressure than R22 and charging up a system with R410A takes more time and more expertise than charging one with R22. This translates to slightly higher labor costs which eat up some of the savings in the cost of the R410A itself versus the R22. Furthermore, these systems exert a lot more pressure on air conditioning system components, including refrigerant lines. Manufacturers have taken this into consideration when constructing R410A compatible condensers; they have designed them with thicker, stronger shells to reduce the noise and the vibrations created by the compressor and to reduce the strain on the piping connections, thereby reducing the incidence of refrigerant leaks. Nonetheless, technicians out in the field are finding that R410A equipment generally does not last as long as really old R22 equipment. You may have gotten twenty or even thirty years out of an old R22 condenser. You may only get ten years out of a new R410A unit. Opting for a brand new R22 condenser will not solve this longevity problem. Due to changes in design and materials, the R22 condensers manufactured today are unlikely to last as long as their R22 predecessors.

The most important consideration as to whether to replace your condenser with an R22 or R410A based unit may be the rising cost of R22 refrigerant. Effective January 1, 2020, the domestic production and import of R22 will be banned all together. Many plants which traditionally manufactured R22 have already converted to the production of R410A and the cost of R22 has been steadily increasing as a result. After January 1, 2020, R22-based systems which have lost refrigerant can still be charged with recycled R22, but supplies are expected to be scarce and extremely expensive.

If you are among the minority who wish to replace their existing R22 condenser with new R22 equipment, time is running out. Some manufacturers have already ceased production of R22 equipment as they convert the last of their R22 production lines to R410 equipment.

By the way, R410A is no longer the newest kid on the block. The EPA would like to slowly move all American homes from R22 and R410A to an even newer refrigerant, R441A. R441A is expected to have zero impact on global warming and ozone depletion. There is just one small problem. The version of R441A producers have come up with so far is a highly flammable blend of ethane, propane, isobutane and n-butane, not necessarily the type of substance you want coursing through the refrigrant lines inside your walls. Consumers who have been unhappy about the conversion from R22 to R410A may find themselves missing R410A once the R441A refrigerant takes over.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, Texas.


Elephants Have Their Own Technique for Keeping Cool

August 3, 2015
Elephant Mud Bath

African Elephants Taking a Nice Mud Bath – Photo courtesy of Mgiganteus

No air conditioner? No ceiling fan? No problem. If you’re an elephant that is! These pachyderms pack their own portable cooling system. Their tool of choice is their trunk which they use to fling mud onto their bodies. If a nice roomy mudbath is available, some will take a more efficient approach and wallow in it. The full-body mud-mask not only protects them from the sun and from insects, but cools the elephants down. Thermal images of Asian elephants by Canadian scientists visiting a zoo in Florida illustrate how the mud’s cooling properties last all day long and into the night. As you can see from the above photo, African elephants employ this same technique.

A similar study was conducted at Busch Gardens in Tampa, Florida, by thermal biologists. The purpose of this study was to highlight the importance of providing elephants with shade and water during summer daylight hours. Apparently mud is to elephants what Freon is to shelter-dwelling humans.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, TX.


Welcome to the Hottest Place on Earth

July 28, 2015
Death Valley

Death Valley – Photo Courtesy of Jon Sullivan

California and Nevada’s Death Valley, located in the Mojave Desert, is the official winner with a record-breaking high of 134 degrees Fahrenheit recorded there on July 10, 1913. Located in a below-sea level basin, Death Valley is not only the hottest place on earth, it is the driest and the lowest place in the United States. Remarkably, it is nonetheless home to over fifty-one species of mammals, including coyotes, mountain lions, burros, bobcats, sheep and foxes; over three-hundred species of birds; and thirty-six species of reptiles. Death Valley’s longest summer ever took place in 2001 when the temperatures climbed into the triple digits for one-hundred-and-sixty consecutive days.

Prospector's Wagon Drawn by 20 Mules

Prospectors seeking their fortune cross Death Valley in a wagon drawn by twenty mules

Al’ Aziziyah, a small town in northwestern Libya is believed to be even hotter than Death Valley with National Geographic having recorded a reading of 136 degrees Fahrenheit there on July 13, 1922. However that reading was never officially recognized.

Al'Aziziyah

Al’ Aziziyah – Image courtesy of Aptech Qatar

Not to be outdone, if you live in Texas, the summer temperature in your attic has likely matched that of Death Valley and Al’ Aziziyah. An unventilated attic in the Texas can reach a temperature of 140 degrees in the middle of summer. If an air conditioning technician pays a visit to your attic, he may come down every so often to chug-a-lug the cold water he carries in his van. He’s not shirking his work, just trying to avoid heat stroke. And his uniform, fresh and pressed in the morning, may have wilted by noon. But he’ll do what he can to keep you and your family cool.

As you may have figured out, the heat that builds up in your attic is transferred through your ceiilng into your living quarters. This makes your air conditioner work harder and your electric bills soar higher. To improve the efficiency of your cooling system, consider ventilating your attic. A power attic ventilator (attic fan) can lower your attic’s temperature by as much as 30 degrees during the summer by drawing fresh air in and forcing hot air out. Power attic ventilators can be purchased at most large hardware stores. You will likely need a roofer to install the hardware and an electrician to hook it up. In most cases, the savings you see on your summer utility bills will more than make up for the initial expense and your air conditioning equipment may last longer as it will not have to work as hard to cool down your home.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, TX.


Daikin Campus Will Add 2,800 Jobs to Houston Workforce

July 27, 2015

usa

Daikin-North America, which owns Goodman and its subsidiary, the heating and cooling division of Amana, has broken ground on its $417 million dollar Houston area campus which is expected to add 2,800 jobs to the local workforce. Employment figures at the facility are expected to increase to 4,000 over time. Comfortplex, the name given to the upcoming three to four million square foot campus, is being constructed on an 80-acre lot near Highway 290, just three miles west of the Grand Parkway. It will be one of the largest and most technologically advanced HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) manufactering facilities in the USA. This campus will consolidate Houston’s two existing Goodman plants (one which manufactures furnaces and one which manufactures air conditioners), as well as an existing Tennesee facility.

The construction and opening of the Houston area plant reflects Daikin-North America’s commitment to reshoring American jobs (bringing manufacturing jobs which had previously been offshored back to American soil). As Daikin sees it, manufacturing its products here in the USA will decrease shipping costs, allow for faster deliveries, and improve the company’s support for its dealers. The economic feasibility of bringing jobs back to the USA has been facilitated by recent economic growth and lower unemployment leading to a greater demand for Daikin’s products. Consumers are now more inclined to replace aging air conditioners and furnaces rather than patch them up. An increase in new construction in many areas of the country has also driven the increase in demand for HVAC equipment. During the 2008 slump, Daikin-North America shipped 7.5 million new units for installation. In 2014, shipments exceeded 9 million units. Manufacturing its air conditioning and heating equipment here in the USA is a three-way win for Daikin, the contractors who sell and install Goodman and Amana equipment, and consumers who prefer products made in the USA.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, Texas.


Turning Up the Heat: Bi-Partisan Battle Against New Furnace Standards

July 22, 2015
Mo Brooks

Mo Brooks
Voice of Common Cents

In Washington this past week, both Republicans and Democrats spoke out against a Department of Energy (DOE) proposal which would make new natural gas furnaces more expensive than ever before for homeowners. The DOE wants raise the minimum residential furnace efficiency standard from 80 AFUE in the south and 90 AFUE in the north to a minimum standard of 92 AFUE nationwide. AFUE stands for Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. The number represents the percentage of the fuel the equipment uses which is converted to actual heat. For example, an 80 AFUE furnace converts eighty-percent of the fuel it uses to heat; the other twenty-percent of the fuel utilized is lost.

The DOE would like us to believe that a minimum efficiency standard of 92 AFUE would make it more affordable for homeowners to heat their homes. However, the actual savings is tied to the climate in which the home is located, how well or how poorly the house is insulated, and the frequency and the temperature setting of the furnace. In the south the savings many homeowners would see in their gas bills over the lifetime of the furnace would not make up for the extra cost of having to purchase an 92 AFUE Furnace as opposed to an 80 AFUE model. Even up north, a full ten-percent of homes would not experience a positive payback given the cost of a 92 AFUE furnace. Those northerners who would experience a net economic benefit from a higher efficiency furnace already have the option of purchasing one. The question is whether all homeowners should be forced, when the time comes to replace their furnaces, to purchase one which is not cost effective for their climate and their needs. As Consumer Reports notes in its article on furnace efficiency, “Given that most furnaces with an AFUE over 90 percent are quite expensive, they’re likely to be economic only in regions where winters are especially harsh—including most of the Northeast and Midwest. ”

Should this regulation go through, it could actually mean higher utility bills for some homeowners, should the ticket price of a 92 AFUE gas furnace force them to switch to a heater which uses a more costly form of energy (such as an all-electric air handler). Still others, once their existing furnaces die, may find themselves going without central heat all together or turning to dangerous space heaters to get them through winter’s coldest nights.

U. S. Representative Mo Brooks (R-Alabama) is to be commended for leading the battle against the proposed furnace efficiency standards. Brooks wrote a letter to DOE Secretary Ernest Moniz asking him to reconsider the change and got one-hundred-and-twenty-one house members to sign it. Unfortunately the battle is far from over. Let’s hope that the Department of Energy will do the math and withdraw this proposal which would result in a higher net heating cost for many Americans living in the south and along the Pacific coast.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, Texas.


EPA Entertains Use of Flammable Refrigerant in American Homes

July 21, 2015

R441A

Even those Americans staunchly in favor of fighting global warming may find themselves balking at the idea of having the latest low-GWP (low global warming potential) refrigerant coursing through their walls. Hailed for its Zero Global Warming and Ozone Depletion Potential, R441A is considered the ideal upcoming refrigerant for use in U.S. homes. There’s just one small catch. Composed of ethane, propane, butane, and isobutane, R441 is flammable.

For now the EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) has approved the use of R441A for refrigerators, freezers, and vending machines. However there is a push to have it approved for use in air conditioning compressors. Many Americans are just now getting accustomed to having R410A (Puron) charged air conditioners cool their homes. Others have yet to make the change from traditional R22 (Freon) systems to R410A. While R410A is more efficient and less damaging to the environment than R22, it operates under much higher pressure than its predecessor. Consequently, it takes more skill and more time for a technician to charge an R410 air conditioning system than it took to charge one that used R22. Furthermore, because of the extra pressure exerted on its coils, R410A charged equipment is not expected to last as long as the old R22 units.

Homeowners and air conditioning technicians have been learning, sometimes reluctantly, to live with this change. However, it’s unlikely that they will adapt as readily to the implementation of R441A. As Steven Mella (CEO for ComStar International) has put it, “Existing systems are not designed for flammable refrigerants. You need systems with explosion-proof components, such as switches that won’t create a spark.” Before the regular use of R441A can be implemented, there is the little matter of engineering cylinders and valves for recovering flammable refrigerant. And, of course, the air conditioning equipment itself must be redesigned.

If global warming is, indeed, looked upon as an environmental ill, low-GWP refrigerant may be one of those treatments which proves far worse than the disease it sets out to cure.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, Texas.


Italian Farm Animals Get Air Conditioning

July 21, 2015
cow

Italian Calf

With temperatures hitting 104 degrees, Italy is experiencing its worst heatwave in ten years. Residents and tourists are not the only ones suffering. Italian farm animals, in particular those confined to barns, are sweltering in the summer heat. This translates to lower milk production by stressed dairy cows, as well as fewer eggs being laid by chickens. Even the pigs have gone on a hunger strike.

According to the Coldiretti Farm Association, “Stressed dairy cows produced 50 million fewer litres of milk than usual during the first two weeks of July.” Egg production is down by five to ten percent and hogs are slimming down instead of fattening up. Many Italian farmers have launched a counter-offensive against the heat by providing their cows and pigs with fans, showers, and even air conditioning.

In the meantime, the zoo in Rome is giving its primates and bears popsicles (made from frozen fruits and vegetables) and Milan is allowing its barristers to shed their heavy black robes. Tourists are being offered free water bottles over at the Roman colliseum. However their best bet might be to ditch their art and history itineraries and become agritourists instead. Then they can head over to one of those air conditioned barns and hang with the cows.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning. in The Woodlands, Texas.


New Hoop for Builders to Jump Through – Zero Energy Buildings

July 21, 2015
Zero Energy Building

This pre-fabricated house in Germany is a near-zero energy building

ZEB is one of the latest acronyms to hit the fields of Air Conditioning and Heating and of Building Sciences. It stands for Zero Energy Building. In theory a Zero-Energy Building eliminates the use of non-renewable energy sources in favor of on-site and locally available renewable sources such as wind, solar power, and hydro-energy. An energy efficient design and educating the building’s occupants in managing their energy usage are also critical to achieving a zero-energy or near zero-energy goal. The obvious benefits of this goal are increased energy efficiency and improved energy sustainability. These buildings may be more secure in the event of a terrorist attack on traditional utility infrastructure.

The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are currently working together to develop a common definition for zero-energy buildings. The European Union (EU) has actually been pursing this goal for years. A 2010 Directive requires EU member states to ensure that, after December 31, 2018, all “new buildings occupied and owned by public authorities” be near zero-energy buildings.

Pictured above is pre-fabricated near-zero-energy home in Germany. Not bad! However the real testing ground for zero energy buildings would be the successful design and implementation of such structures here in southeast Texas where the greatest battle would be keeping the interior cool and comfortable.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, TX.


Smart Thermostats Vulnerable to Hackers

July 20, 2015

nest

Your smart thermostat may be smarter than you think. In order to do its job properly it stores your zip code, your Wi-Fi network name, and your Wi-Fi password and detects whether or not you are home. It uses this information to communicate with your provider’s cloud, to learn and follow your energy usage habits , and to switch your heater or air conditioner into low energy-mode when you are out of the house. That, in and of itself, is not a problem. In fact, it’s what you paid for. The catch is that these thermostats can be hacked so that they share this information with outsiders. They can also be pirated and then utilized to generate spam or malware from inside your home or place of business.

The problem does not lie with their Wi-Fi capabilities: their wireless communication is heavily secured. It’s their USB port which makes them vulnerable. The purpose of this port is to allow manual updates of the software they utilize, in the event that cloud-generated updates prove unsuccessful. According to indepdent research Daniel Buentello, this port can be readily compromised. All one has to do is hold down a NEST thermostat’s power button for ten seconds, then plug a USB device into the port. Doing so overrides the thermostat’s security features and enables the hacker to infect it with a not-so-friendly program of his own.

Unless you make it a habit of inviting hackers over for dinner, this scenario is not likely to take place in your home. The greater risk is that hackers may buy these thermostats in bulk, infect them with remotely controlled malware, repackage, and then resell them. Under no circumstance should you purchase a second-hand smart thermostat or order one from a random individual online.

In fact, if you really want to maintain your privacy, you may want to make due with one of those old-fashioned not-so-smart thermostats. To save energy, bump up the temperature (if you’re running the ac) or nudge it down (if you’re using the heater) when you leave the house, then set it back to the desired temperature as soon as you get home. (Do not shut it off altogether or your system may use more energy bringing your home back to the optimum temperature than it saved by being off while you were away). Sure, it may take your air conditioner or your heater ten or fifteen minutes to restore your home to the desired temperature, but that is actually easier on your body than stepping straight into a perfectly chilled house on a stifling hot day or into a nice warm house from the freezing cold. And without your thermostat broadcasting your comings and goings, your jewelry and electronics are more likely to be right where you left them.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, TX.


Home Buyer Beware – Refrigerant Top-Off Masks Critical Problem

October 14, 2010

It’s an all too common scenario. You find a house you want to buy and have it inspected. The general inspector recommends that the air conditioning system be serviced so you ask the seller to get this taken care of. The seller calls out an air conditioning technician who determines that the air conditioner is low in refrigerant and charges the system so that it will cool properly. What’s wrong with this picture?

A sound, properly functioning central air conditioner is a hermetically sealed system. It does not consume refrigerant. If a technician has to add refrigerant (commonly known by the brand names Freon [R22] or Puron [R410A]), the system has a leak which will not go away on its own but which will get worse over time.

A small percentage of leaks will be coming from a valve, seal, or gasket which can be inexpensively repaired or replaced. However, the vast majority of the time, the leak will be in the condenser coil or the evaporator coil itself. When this happens the coil or the entire unit will need to be replaced. The only way to know where the system is leaking refrigerant is to have a leak search performed.

What will happen if the seller doesn’t have the leak searched and repaired? If it’s a slow leak, the air conditioning system may hold an adequate charge for a year or two. If it’s a moderate leak, it may hold a charge for several months. Sometimes, if the leak is quite large or if there are multiple leaks, the system could lose the refrigerant in a matter of weeks or even days. It is not only costly to regularly add refrigerant to a leaking system, it is also a violation of EPA regulations. If you buy a house and the air conditioner needs refrigerant, a reputable ac contractor will charge it up once, but afterward he may refuse to add refrigerant again until the leak has been repaired. In most cases, this will mean having the condenser or the evaporator coil replaced.

The possibility that you may have to replace the condenser unit and/or the evaporator coil if you purchase a house with an air conditioner that has been topped-off with refrigerant is not the only problem. When the refrigerant leaks again, the system may run constantly causing either the condenser unit or the evaporator coil to freeze-up. The freezing up and the subsequent defrosting of the evaporator coil (located in the attic) can lead to serious water damage.

If you’re buying a house and the inspector recommends having the ac serviced, ask for a copy of the service invoice. If refrigerant has been added to the system, insist that a leak search be performed and request a quote from the ac company for the repair or the replacement of the equipment required to fix the leak.

Blogger Terry Portillo owns and operates ACU Air Heating and Air Conditioning in The Woodlands, TX.